Seth Byrd, Oklahoma State University Extension Cotton Specialist, Stillwater/Altus:
"Irrigated production has been good after plenty of warm weather. Guys are managing their water and making PGR applications in growthy situations.
The white flower is not where it should be in the irrigated fields that were planted late. It’s not blooming out the top and is at or near the last effective bloom date. But much of the crop is at 2 to 3 NAWF and will be finished this week. That's perfect timing.
"For dryland, it's a different story for most growers. With so many 100-degree days and little rain, heat stress has hurt the dryland and even some irrigated. Early planted dryland cotton shed fruit and bloomed out the top in mid-August. The yield will be lower. Later planted dryland is just now ready to bloom out the top. It will get there, but the fruit won't fully mature.
"Dryland that received big rains recently will benefit. If it was far enough along, rain helped seal fruit sites.
"Stink bugs have been an issue for 2 to 3 weeks primarily in central and northern Oklahoma. Late planted fields with smaller bolls may need insecticide treatments. Guys still need to scout for stink bugs.
"If it's warm and dry in September and we have a decent early October, irrigated yields could be good after the poor start. However, dryland yields will be hurting for most parts of the state."
Suhas Vyavhare, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Entomologist, Lubbock:
"There's not much insect pressure, but aphids are still out there. Their numbers are below threshold, thanks to good beneficial populations. A few spots needed spraying where late season numbers were too high.
"Bollworm pressure remains light, but growers still need to watch for them until cotton receives 350 heat units after cutout. Bollworms have been light due to late corn and sorghum. When corn and sorghum mature, there could be bollworm flushes.
"Stink bug pressure has decreased after requiring treatments in July."
Tyler Mays, Texas A&M AgriLife IPM Agent, Hill County:
"Growers are trying to fill bolls on later cotton. Earlier cotton is seeing its first round of defoliation. Potassium deficiency continues. Plants are not able to uptake the potassium needed to fill the boll demand.
"The only pests now are drought and high temperatures in the 100s. There are few aphids, and we're past the point in which bollworms, stink bugs and lygus bugs are a threat.
"Yields will probably average about 1 bale per acre on the early planted crop. For later fields, it depends on whether they're in areas that received rain near the bloom stage."
Randy Norton, University of Arizona Extension Cotton Specialist, Safford:
"Heat stress trial data shows how much 2 weeks without the 110-degree-plus temperatures can help plants. Flowers are fertile and have good pollen.
"Much cotton is yet to make. It's 3 weeks from setting bolls. With the state's warm temperatures, flowers set through September 15 can still make a harvestable boll.
"Yields should be better than average, contingent on a favorable fall. The state average is about 1,500 pounds per acre, so we should top that. After a cool weather start, we made up time in late July and early August.
"I'm optimistic about the crop, but there's still insect pressure. Stink bugs have been constant in parts of the state with severe damage in some fields. Whitefly pressure has tailed off with a few treatments, but no explosion.
"Unfortunately, pigweed is a growing problem. Many fields have them, and they're likely glyphosate-resistant. If growers have pigweed, they need to get rid of it. Resistance is an issue in Arizona, and growers need to be on top of it."
Peter Dotray, Texas Tech University Weed Scientist (joint appointment with Texas A&M AgriLife), Lubbock:
"One bonus from the excessive August heat is that it has hindered weed production. However, irrigated fields or dryland areas that received rain could still see late-emerging weeds, likely amaranth pigweed and morning glories.
"Research suggests pigweed coming up in August can still produce 20,000 seeds. Those in September can produce 2,000, and 200 seeds can emerge from October weeds.
"Growers using cultivation may still have an opportunity to layby residual herbicides to carry them through the last cultivation to harvest. Hopefully, they can stay the course and manage late weeds that could hurt production next year.
"In preparation for 2020, growers should scout weedy areas, note which weeds are present and map spots with herbicide-resistant weeds. Also, be ready for another round of auxin herbicide certification training in 2020. Growers are required to be certified every year. Training sessions will have updates on the latest technologies and regulations."