Owen Taylor, Editor (601-992-9488)
Larry Stalcup, Southwest Editor (806-356-6098)
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Here is this week's issue of AgFax Peanuts, sponsored by Arysta LifeScience.
Better rainfall patterns continue to bring along dryland acres in portions of the lower Southeast, but seasonal drought patterns persist in places. See comments by South Carolina's Jay Chapin.
Sampling could start in northern Florida in the very earliest fields before the middle of August.
Preemerge herbicides have performed well in Texas and Oklahoma, but hoe hands have been needed in some fields where those materials were left out of the program. Only limited disease activity has been noted in the Southwest’s crop.
With weather delays and late planting in the Southwest, an open fall will sure be needed to finish out peanuts, especially the longer-season types.
White mold is becoming at least a bit more apparent in parts of the Southeast. Tomato spotted wilt virus isn’t hard to find in the lower South.
Scattered worm treatments have been going out in the Delta and Southeast, but insect pressure has generally been low. One underlying trend lately has been the earlier-than-usual appearance of loopers, with the more problematic soybean looper in the mix. We’ve heard comments about this from our soybean contacts in both regions.
Questions have been raised about nitrogen deficiency and poor N fixing in some peanuts in Virginia and North Carolina. Connect in our Links section to a posting by Maria Balota, Virginia Tech Plant Physiologist.
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Gary Swords, Swords Consulting, Arlington, Georgia: “We really haven’t had many problems in peanuts. A few worms are out there and three-cornered alfalfa hoppers have picked up. Of all the peanuts I’ve got, we’ve only sprayed 2 fields for worms (as of 7/27). Those were small peanuts that couldn’t take the loss right now. I found a little white mold Saturday (7/25) in one field. It had gotten dry, then we started receiving rain – about 1.5 across most of our areas – and that set it off.”
Chris Locke, CSL Consulting Inc., Sudan, Texas/Eastern New Mexico: “Peanuts are really clean. Most are at full bloom and pegging. However, the crop is still pretty late. Yields will depend on how the weather goes in September and October. If it’s a good, warm fall without a lot of rain, we should be fine, but it will be October before we start digging, Weeds remain under control. Farmers have done a good job of weed management. As for diseases, we’re really watching for rhizoctonia and pythium.”
David Hydrick, Hydrick’s Crop Consulting, Inc., Jonesboro, Arkansas: “We’re on our second white mold application and are going into our third. As far as disease goes, this is the cleanest peanut crop I’ve ever had. We treated one field today (7/27) for worms, although next week I think we’ll treat quite a few fields. Mainly, we’re finding bollworms and fall armyworms.”
Todd Baughman, Oklahoma State University Institute for Agricultural Biosciences, Program Support Leader, Peanuts, Ardmore: “Peanuts are finally starting to produce pods. That means we’re essentially a month behind. The biggest concern is the heat. But on the plus side, we’re getting into the 70s at night and holding humidity, which helps our blooms. We’re not seeing a lot of diseases and our weed control looks good. In general, weed control has been effective where preemerge herbicides were applied, and those materials are holding up better than I expected.”
Luke Johnson, Johnson Scouting LLC, Donalsonville, Georgia: “We’re finding varying levels of foliage feeders, ranging from none to treatment thresholds. This includes some loopers, armyworms and budworms. We are continuing to see leaf hoppers and three-cornered alfalfa hoppers in high numbers in some fields, especially on edges. Growers are irrigating heavily now that we’re into pod filling. Rainfall has been good in most places. The crop is doing well on irrigated ground and on most dryland fields.”
Justin Ballew, Agronomy Agent, Dillon County, Clemson University, South Carolina: “We’ve got some good peanuts in the area, although they had started looking thirsty. But we got a nice rain through the Pee Dee last week, which has really helped. A few worms are present, mainly armyworms, but nothing that needs to be treated quite yet. Weed control mostly looks good, just some pigweed here and there.”
Brad Smith, Crop Production Services, Selma, Alabama: “Peanuts are pretty quiet. We’re making fungicide applications but haven’t had to treat any insects so far. All of our peanuts are lapped.”
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Jeff Gore, Research Entomologist, Delta REC, Stoneville, Mississippi: “Nothing major is happening in peanuts as far as pests go. Caterpillars are picking up all over in peanuts and in most cases it’s been a mixed bag of bollworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworms and a few loopers. I have also heard of a limited number of spider mites in peanuts. They have mostly been spotty and a few mite sprays are being made where they can treat by ground.”
Ron Smith, Alabama Extension Entomologist: "Worms are turning up in some peanuts. What I’ve heard about so far is something like 2 worms per row foot, with a mix of soybean loopers, green cloverworms, yellow-striped armyworms and a few corn earworms. Most people, I think, would be using 4 to 5 per foot for a threshold right now, although that always depends on how much foliage they have. In this case, peanuts had good moisture, they had lapped and had a nice foliage depth. So, with those low numbers there would be plenty of grazing and not enough worms to cause significant loss of foliage. We sure don’t want to spray if it’s not completely necessary and then flare spider mites.”
Scott Monfort, University of Georgia Extension Peanut Specialist, Tifton, Georgia: “We’re still getting more scattered rain showers. That's not to say everybody has received rain lately. We have dry areas where peanuts are starting to wilt up. It’s been drier, overall, in the northern part of the state up to the South Carolina line, and that has caused some problems.
“Plus, there’s our reality that in Georgia you’re never more than a week out from a drought. In places, we’ve reached or gone past that. The forecast calls for a good chance of rain this weekend (8/1-2), at least across the lower part of our production area, but it would be great if that pattern also helped out our northern crop. Where we can irrigate – which is the majority of our peanuts – the crop is doing well.
“We’ve seen some increase in worms here and there and white mold is popping up. We keep seeing more and more tomato spotted wilt virus. You can find it pretty much everywhere in the state now. We don’t have a handle yet on percentages, but everyone is seeing enough to conclude that more is definitely out there than we’ve seen in at least the last couple of years.
“A little sampling might start in about 3 weeks in a very, very small number of fields planted here and there in the first few days of April.”
Mace Bauer, Extension Agent, Columbia County, Florida: “A lot of white mold has developed pretty much everywhere in our 90-day-old peanuts. We’ve had rainfall just about every day for the last 30 days, so we’re in a high-disease situation. Today is July 31 and one report said that 14 inches had fallen in Lake City since July 1 and I think they got another inch of rain today. These are classic afternoon showers, so we can at least manage around them. We’re just getting more of them than usual.
Management Tip from Arysta LifeScience:
Step-Up Peanut Insect Scouting
The single, most important thing that peanut growers can do to help with insect management is to scout more acres, says Mark Abney, University of Georgia extension peanut entomologist. Just because your neighbor’s peanuts may be infested, doesn’t mean your crop is, too.
A lack of scouting means peanut farmers are spending money and time treating pests and basing application decisions on incomplete or incorrect information, Abney says. Also, ill-advised spraying can lead to the decline of natural predators, which could open up an even bigger problem.
The bottom line is that you’ll get the most from your crop protection tools if they are applied at the right time against the right pests. And you must regularly scout fields to obtain this information. Learn more about peanut scouting.
“Grower have been working hard to contain white mold. Even in younger peanuts we can find limbs that have been damaged in a minor way. It’s sure more than the white mold levels you’d expect in a drier year. On the other hand, leaf spot has been limited.
“Overall, we’ve got potential for a big crop. Around August 10 we probably will start sampling the very earliest fields and might be digging the first peanuts on August 20.”
Chuck Wilbur, Independent Crop Consultant, Wellington, Texas/Southeastern Panhandle/Southwestern Oklahoma: “Peanuts look good but they’re all over the board. Some are blooming, some are pegging and some have pods. Fields planted early almost have a canopy. Many of our varieties are Spanish. They have half-grown pods. The question is whether we’ll have enough time for the longer season Virginias and runners to mature and grade.
“Weeds are semi under control. We’ve run a lot of hoe hands where fields didn’t have a good preemerge program. Preemerges have done a good job. We’re not seeing any early leaf spot or other diseases and there’s no insect pressure. Overall, things look pretty good.”
Jay Chapin, Interim Extension Peanut Specialist, Clemson University, South Carolina: “We have very low worm populations right now and are really in a lull with insects. People are maybe finding a couple of worms per foot of row and we certainly don’t want to spray a population that small and risk flaring spider mites.
“Mainly, we need rain. With dryland peanuts, we’ve got a wide range of conditions, depending on whether fields did or didn’t receive rain. The really stressed peanuts have almost no taproot crop. The taproot crop they did make is rubbery and peanuts have backed away from the hulls. Those plants aren’t putting on any limb crop. So whatever they make will largely depend on whether we start receiving rain.
“You don’t have to go very far to find a field where it has rained more consistently and plants have a good taproot crop with a limb crop and pegs out there, plus matchstick pods filling. If it rains right away, that would keep those fields moving. And we’ve got everything inbetween those 2 extremes. Whether we get a rain right now will determine our fate this month. We can make some good peanuts or have a mess on our hands.”
USDA: Peanut Price Highlights 7-31
Peanuts: Breeding a Better Peanut Butter 7-30
Peanut Stocks: Utilization Up 5% Over Last Year 7-30
USDA: Weekly National Peanut Prices 7-28
AgCarolina Farm Credit Accepting Applications for 7th Annual Ag Biz Planner 7-28
Georgia Peanuts: Twenty-Ninth Annual Tour Set for Sept. 15-17 7-28
Florida Peanuts: Optimizing Maturity – A Review of Methods and Techniques 7-31
Florida Peanuts: 6 Tips For Controlling White Mold 7-29
Georgia Peanuts: Leaf Scorcher Showing Up 7-31
Georgia Peanuts: Treating Pressure from Pests 7-30
Georgia Peanuts: Twenty-Ninth Annual Tour Set for Sept. 15-17 7-28
North Carolina Peanuts: Time to Spray for Southern Stem Rot 7-28
Virginia Peanuts: Cause for Unusual Yellow Color 7-30
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