Farmers confronted with poor stands due to excessive soil moisture, freezing temperatures and frosts, fungal seed decay and seedling rots, soil crusting, as well as other problems that affect corn stands, may be considering replanting their fields. Most corn that’s been planted has yet to emerge or develop much beyond the VE or V2 stage.
According to the NASS as of Sunday May 14, 49 percent of Ohio’s corn crop was planted – only 3 percent more than the previous week and 7 percent below the five year average. Only 24% of the crop has emerged.
Replant decisions in corn should be based on strong evidence that the returns to replanting will not only cover replant costs but also net enough to make it worth the effort. Don’t make a final assessment on the extent of damage and stand loss too quickly. The following are some guidelines to consider when making a replant decision.
If the crop damage assessment indicates that a replant decision is called for, some specific information will be needed, including:
- Original target plant population/Intended plant stand
- Plant stand after damage
- Uniformity of plant stand after damage
- Original planting date
- Possible replanting date
- Likely replanting pest control and seed costs
To estimate after‑damage plant population per acre, count the number of viable plants in a length of row that equals 1/1000 of an acre and multiply by 1000. Make several counts in different rows in different parts of the field. Six to eight counts per 20 acres should be sufficient. Table 1 below shows row lengths required to equal 1/1000 acre when corn is planted at various row widths.
Table 1. Length of row required for 1/1000 acre at various row widths1
Row width (in.) Length of row for 1/1000 A
15 34 ft., 8 in.
20 26 ft., 2 in.
28 18 ft., 8 in.
30 17 ft., 5 in.
36 14 ft., 6 in.
38 13 ft., 9 in.
40 13 ft., 1 in.
42 12 ft., 5 in.
1Example: For 30” rows, count the number of kernels dropped or the number of plants in 17 ft., 5 in. and multiply by 1000. If there are 21 in the 17 ft., 5 in. row, the population is 21,000 per acre.
A major consideration in making a replant decision is the potential yield at the new planting date and possibly different planting rate; this can vary depending on the hybrid used, soil fertility and moisture availability.
Table 2 is adapted from a chart developed by Dr. Emerson Nafziger at the University of Illinois that shows effects of planting date and plant population on final grain yield for the central Corn Belt. Dr. Bob Nielsen at Purdue University modified this table to provide estimates of potential yield losses for planting dates in early June (on-line here)
Grain yields for varying dates and populations in both tables are expressed as a percentage of the yield obtained at the optimum planting date and population.
Table 2. University of Illinois replant chart developed under high yielding conditions (adapted from Nafziger, 1995-96)
|Plants per acre at harvest|
|Date||—————————% of optimum yield————————-|
Here’s how Table 2 might be used to arrive at a replant decision. Let’s assume that a farmer planted on April 20 at a seeding rate sufficient to attain a harvest population of 30,000 plants per acre.
The farmer determined on May 18 that his stand was reduced to 15,000 plants per acre as a result of saturated soil conditions and ponding. According to Table 2, the expected yield for the existing stand would be 81% of the optimum.
If the corn crop was planted the next day on May 19 and produced a full stand of 30,000 plants per acre, the expected yield would be 91% of the optimum. The difference expected from replanting is 91 minus 81, or 10 percentage points. At a yield level of 175 bushels per acre, this increase would amount to a gain of about 17 to 18 bu per acre.
It’s also important to note plant distribution within the row. Remember that values in replant charts like Table 2 are based on a uniform distribution of plants within the row.
Add a 5% yield loss penalty if the field assessment reveals several gaps of 4 to 6 feet within rows and a 2% penalty for gaps of 1 to 3 feet. Yield loss due to stand reduction results not only from the outright loss of plants but also from an uneven distribution of the remaining ones.
The more numerous and longer the gaps between plants within the row, the greater the yield reduction. It’s also important to consider the condition of the existing corn.
When making the replant decision, seed and pest control costs must not be overlooked. Depending on the seed company and the cause of stand loss, expense for seed can range from none to full cost.
As for the correct hybrid maturity to use in a late planting situation, continue to use adapted hybrids switching to early/mid maturities, if necessary, depending on your location in Ohio.
You also need to review herbicide and insecticide programs under late‑planting conditions. For instance, it may be necessary to reapply herbicides, especially if deep tillage is used.
However, try to avoid such tillage depending instead on postemergence chemicals or cultivation for weed control. Concerning insect control, if soil insecticides were applied in the row at initial planting, check insecticide label restrictions before re‑application.
Also remember that later May and early June planting dates increase the possibility of damage from European corn borer and western bean cutworm so planting Bt hybrids that effectively target these pests is often beneficial
The cost of replanting will differ depending on the need for tillage and chemical application. The cost and availability of acceptable seed will also be considerations. These factors must be weighed against expected replanting yield gains.
If after considering all the factors, there is still doubt as to whether or not a field should be replanted, you will perhaps be correct more often if the field is left as is.