Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Indiana Corn: High Nitrogen Rates Increase Micronutrient Uptake, Storage

AgFax.Com - Your Online Ag News Source


A Purdue University study shows that high-yielding, modern corn hybrids take up not only more nitrogen from soil but more micronutrients such as zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Nitrogen fertilizer rates also influence how much of these nutrients are stored in the grain at harvest.

Growers may need to use fertilizers to meet the increased micronutrient requirements of hybrid corn in high-yield systems, especially if soil nutrient levels are too low.

“This study raises the question of whether we need to pay more attention to micronutrients in fertilizer management,” said Tony Vyn, Purdue professor of agronomy and co-author of the study. “In high-yield systems, it’s not just that corn requires more macronutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus – which is what farmers normally think about – more micronutrients are needed as well. If you have soil that is deficient in micronutrients, you could be limiting your yields.”




Though micronutrients are essential for optimum plant growth and reproductive development, current management practices rarely take them into account, as growers often assume that soil nutrient concentrations for these nutrients are adequate. But in modern crop production systems, deficiencies could occur, Vyn said.

“For many years, we didn’t have to worry about micronutrients,” he said. “But if you’re in a cash crop situation where you’re producing bigger plants and more grain, you are exporting more micronutrients away from the field at harvest. If you’re not replacing them, the soil is going to be depleted over time.”

Soil factors such as pH and moisture can also influence micronutrient availability, said Ignacio Ciampitti, co-author of the study and assistant professor at Kansas State University.

“Nutrient availability is more¬†complex than soil nutrient concentrations,” Ciampitti said. “Nutrient availability is also related to the plant’s ability to take up each nutrient at the soil-root interface.”

In the second part of a study on how modern corn hybrids (post-1990) absorb and allocate nutrients under contemporary management practices, Vyn and Ciampitti measured how simultaneous increases in the number of plants per acre and nitrogen rates affected the concentration of zinc, copper, iron and manganese in two hybrids of corn.

Vyn said the influence of plant density on the uptake of micronutrients was relatively minor, even at high crowding levels, in that higher plant density resulted in similar yields as medium and low densities. But as nitrogen rates increased, yields rose and corn plants took up a substantially greater amount of micronutrients and allocated more micronutrients to the ears.

“From a human nutrition viewpoint, there’s always a concern that increasing yields will dilute the nutritional quality of corn,” Vyn said. “But as long as soil concentrations of nutrients are sufficient, higher yields tend to mean more micronutrients are concentrated in the grain, not less.”

But higher corn yields mean more micronutrients leave the field at harvest.

“Growers are not used to thinking about how much zinc leaves the field when they harvest grain corn,” Vyn said. “But that’s part of the management equation that has to be considered.”

At high plant density (42,000 plants per acre) and high nitrogen rates (200 pounds per acre), 58 percent of zinc taken up by corn hybrids was removed in the grain, compared with 31 percent of copper, 18 percent of iron and 15 percent of manganese.

Vyn and Ciampitti also observed differences in when micronutrients are absorbed and where they are stored in the corn plant. Zinc is taken up throughout the season and is primarily stored in the stems during the vegetative stage, while iron is allocated to the leaves. Copper and manganese are distributed to both leaves and stems and are taken up mostly before the flowering period.

To prevent deficiencies, Vyn suggests growers add zinc to bulk fertilizer with phosphorus – which has a similar uptake pattern – or put it in a starter, while manganese can be supplied in a foliar application where necessary. Growers usually can rely on soil for sufficient levels of iron and copper, he said.

Further research will concentrate on developing estimates for micronutrient requirements to help inform growers which kinds of fertilizers to apply and when.

“There’s no question that when you have more biomass and higher grain yields, you require more of certain micronutrients,” Vyn said. “It’s something to be aware of.”

Funding for the study was provided by Dow AgroSciences, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Purdue Bilsland Dissertation Fellowship, Potash Corp. and The Mosaic Co.


Tags: , , , , , ,


Leave a Reply

Name and Email Address are required fields. Your email will not be published or shared with third parties.

Sunbelt Ag News

    Grain TV: Positive Day but No Major Gains10-1

    DTN Livestock Close: Cattle Futures See Bullish Explosion10-1

    U.S. Dollar Strength Weighing Down Commodity Markets – DTN10-1

    DTN Cotton Close: Settles to Marginal Losses10-1

    DTN Grain Close: Slight Price Rebound10-1

    DTN Livestock Midday: Strong Gains Develop Across Complex10-1

    U.S. Ag Shortliners Take Their Technology to World — DTN10-1

    DTN Grain Midday: Futures Lower in Quiet Trade10-1

    DTN Fertilizer Trends: State Averages for Anhydrous Vary Widely10-1

    Good on Grain: Stocks Estimates Provide No Support for Prices10-1

    Arkansas: Winter Wheat Growers Set Another Yield Record10-1

    Georgia Peanut Commission Launches Peanut Allergy Website10-1

    DTN Cotton Open: Edges Higher within Tight Ranges10-1

    Shifts in Corn Consumption Revealed in USDA Report — DTN10-1

    DTN Livestock Open: Futures Set for Mixed Start10-1

    USDA Grain Stocks Report Bearish for Corn, Wheat — DTN10-1

    DTN Grain Open: Lower Start Across Board10-1

    Keith Good: U.S., Brazil Reportedly Agree to Settle Cotton Dispute10-1

    Farm Bill Decision Deadlines and the Farm Bill Toolbox9-30

    Doane Cotton Close: Analyst Predicts 40 Cent Futures9-30

    AFB Grain-Soybean Close: Prices Lower Despite Bullish Soy Stocks9-30

    AFB Cotton Close: Futures in the Red9-30

    AFB Rice Close: Futures Fractionally Mixed9-30

    AgFax Cotton Review: Global Supply Hurts Prices; Cotton Transition Assistance Program Deadline Looms9-30

    USDA: Weekly National Peanut Prices9-30

    USDA Grain Stocks: Corn Up 50%, Wheat 2; Soybeans Drop 359-30

    USDA Wheat: Production Drops 5 Percent from 20139-30

    Grain Storage, Transportation Worries Mount — DTN9-29

    Soybeans: Protein, Oil Values Rate More Market Attention — DTN9-29

    Soybean Harvest Rises by 7 Points, Corn 5 — DTN9-29

    Growing Demand for Pork Likely to be Met — and Quickly9-29

    Peanut Stocks and Processing: Utilization Up 4%, Stocks at 1.4B Pounds9-29

    Peanuts: New Revenue Policy Implemented by USDA9-29

    Flint on Crops: What is a Good Variety Worth?9-29

    Southern Grain Crops In 2014 – Top 10 Trends, Issues, Setbacks – AgFax9-28

    Farm to Table: Something Old is New Again. – AgFax9-26

    Rice: Mexico To Restore Import Tariffs on Asian Rice9-26

    Rice Crop: Delta Area Harvests Picking Up Steam9-26

    Rice Market: Strong Friday Push Makes for a Positive Week9-26

    Rose on Cotton: Bearish News – We got plenty.9-26

    Cleveland on Cotton: Chinese Moves Send Market into Free Fall9-26

    Sizing Up Sudden Death Syndrome: Management Decisions to Fight Back – DTN9-26

    Nebraska: New Study Addresses Climate Change Challenges – DTN9-26

    GMO Wheat Appears in Montana as USDA Wraps Up Oregon Investigation – DTN9-26

    Welch on Wheat: Harvest Behind Normal, Conditions Decline9-26

    Louisiana: Ag Officials Ask for New Rules for Drones9-26

    Welch on Grain: Corn Condition Improves Slightly9-26

    USDA: Peanut Price Highlights9-26

    Shurley on Cotton: Carefully Consider Selling Options9-26

    AgFax Wildlife Review: S.C. National Park Confronts Wild Hog Problem9-26

    Crop Insurance Details Clearing Up — DTN9-26

    Sunbelt Ag Events

     

    About Us

    AgFax.Com covers agricultural trends and production topics, with an emphasis on news about cotton, rice, peanuts, corn, soybeans, wheat and tree crops, including almonds, pecans, walnuts and pistachios.

      

    This site also serves as the on-line presence of electronic crop and pest reports published by AgFax Media LLC (formerly Looking South Communications).

        

    Click here to subscribe to our free reports.

      

    We provide early warnings and confirmations about pests, diseases and other factors that influence yield. Our goal is to quickly provide farmers and crop advisors with information needed to make better and more profitable decisions.

         

    Our free weekly crop and pest advisories include:

    • AgFax Midsouth Cotton, covering cotton production and news in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Missouri.

    • AgFax Southeast Cotton, covering cotton production and news in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.

    • AgFax Southwest Cotton (new for 2013!), covering cotton production and news in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and New Mexico.

    • AgFax West (formerly MiteFax: SJV Cotton), covering California cotton, alfalfa, tomatoes and other non-permanent crops in California's Central Valley.

    • AgFax Rice covering rice production and news in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri and Texas.

    • AgFax Peanuts, covering peanut production in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia.

    • AgFax Southern Grain: covering soybeans, corn, milo and small grains in Southern states.

    • AgFax Almonds, covering almonds, pistachios, walnuts and other tree crops in California's Central Valley.

    • AgCom 101, providing guidance to ag professionals involved in social media.

    Our newsletters are sponsored by the following companies: FMC Corporation Chemtura Dow AgroSciences.

          

    Mission statement:

    Make it as easy as possible for our community of readers to find and/or receive needed information.

              

    Contact Information:

    AgFax Media. LLC

    142 Westlake Drive Brandon, MS 39047

    601-992-9488 Office 601-992-3503 Fax

    Owen Taylor Debra L. Ferguson Laurie Courtney

          

    Circulation Questions?

    Contact Laurie Courtney