Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Illinois Corn: High Daytime Temps Not a Big Concern

AgFax.Com - Your Online Ag News Source


The spike of above-average daytime temperatures throughout much of Illinois during the third week of July should not raise concerns for the corn crop as most areas had enough water in the soil to carry crops through that week, said University of Illinois professor of crop sciences Emerson Nafziger.

However, higher than normal night temperatures during the past week might have hurt pollination success in areas where soils are starting to dry out, Nafziger said.

“The heavy silking that preceded the full emergence of tassels, as noted in recent years, is very much evidenced again this year. This means there should be little concern about having silks present when pollen is being shed,” he said.

 

Nafziger said that 21 percent of the Illinois corn crop was pollinating on July 14, and this moved to 64 percent by July 21. “Planting was concentrated in the third week of May this year, so pollination is also occurring relatively quickly. That’s a week or so later than normal,” he added.

In some fields planted in mid-May or later, especially those planted at high populations, stalk diameter is noticeably smaller than often seen in earlier-planted corn. Later-planted corn with adequate soil moisture often grows taller than early-planted corn because of higher temperatures during internode elongation. Because late planting doesn’t increase plant weight, stalks end up tall and on the thin side, Nafziger said.

“Plants with smaller stalks often have less leaf area, and thus less ability to set and fill a large ear. It’s too early to know if this will decrease yield potential, but it is one of the ways in which late planting can lead to lower yields,” he said.

A return to better soil moisture conditions along with lower night temperatures over the next two weeks should allow good kernel set. After a wet June, Nafziger said soil moisture is becoming a concern in some places. July rainfall has been less than normal over much of Illinois, with less than an inch so far in parts of western and northern Illinois.

“The soil water supply was good coming into July, but how well the crop is tapping into this supply will make a difference as we move into the second half of the season,” Nafziger said. “Fields that were planted have had a chance to produce a good crop canopy, which in turn enabled deeper root growth. Roots may not be as extensive as they were in July 2012, but as we saw last year, good root systems don’t help when there’s no available water in the soil.”

The available water supply is not as certain for later-planted crop which won’t pollinate until late July or early August. These plants are in mid-vegetative stages and are showing mid-afternoon drought stress symptoms (leaf curling) in areas where recent rainfall has been limited. “This crop has not grown enough to have used up the available soil water to 3 or 4 feet deep. Rather, the root system is simply not as deep or as well connected as it would be had planting been done earlier or if soils had not been so wet earlier,” Nafziger explained.

Another concern with wet weather earlier in the spring is nitrogen supply for the crop. While leaf color remains good in areas with adequate soil water and where the crop has continued to grow well, in areas where soils have dried and some drought effects are starting to appear, leaf color has lightened some. Nafziger said rainfall in these areas should return leaf color to normal green. However if plants have been under stress from lack of nitrogen during the pollination period, he cautioned that success of kernel set can be lowered.

“It is possible that nitrogen loss in some lower-lying parts of fields may mean shortages for the crop, even after root systems recover. Supplemental applications of nitrogen have been made in some such areas, usually as urea, and sometimes with urease inhibitor. Such applications might produce enough added yield to provide a positive return if they are made before or even during pollination, but are likely to be effective only when rain moves the nitrogen into the soil,” he said.

As crops move through pollination and into the grain filling stages, the major concern will be how well the leaf canopy holds up in providing maximum amounts of photosynthate (sugars) to fill kernels.

Soil water supply will be the major factor, followed by leaf health and nutrient supply, Nafziger said. “We expect the crop to take about 8 weeks to reach maturity after pollination is complete, and maintaining green, healthy leaves through this period is the only way to maximize kernel fill and yield. If the crop takes less time from pollination to maturity, it will have stopped filling prematurely and will produce lower yields,” he said.

Tags: , , , , , ,


Leave a Reply

Name and Email Address are required fields. Your email will not be published or shared with third parties.

Sunbelt Ag News

    DTN Cotton Close: Small Gains But Still Lost 284 Points for the Month11-28

    DTN Livestock Close: Expect Packers to Start Monday Close to Knife11-28

    DTN Grain Close: OPEC Decision Keeps on Giving11-28

    Peanut Stocks: Shelled Edible Grade Utilization Up 7% Over 201311-28

    Peanut Price Highlights – USDA11-28

    Cotton Market Weekly Review – USDA11-28

    USDA Clears Disaster Aid for Livestock, Honeybees and Farm-Raised Fish Producers11-28

    DTN Livestock Midday: Feeder Cattle Futures Push Higher11-28

    DTN Grain Midday: Wheat Jumps 10 to 14 Higher11-28

    DTN Cotton Open: Futures Begin Slightly Higher11-28

    Future Tech: Rice Yields Improve; Corn Holding Vaccine; Plants Respond to Damage – DTN11-28

    Soybeans: Prices Likely to Return to Seasonal Patterns — DTN11-28

    U.S. Grain Transportation: Inspections Continue to Increase11-28

    DTN Livestock Open: Higher Start for Cattle Futures11-28

    Keith Good: Corn, Soybean Prices Up Slightly in November — USDA11-28

    AFB Grain-Soybean Close: Corn, Wheat Higher, Soybeans See Modest Losses11-26

    AFB Cotton Close: Prices Surge Higher11-26

    AFB Rice Close: Jan, March Chart Bullish Key Reversals11-26

    Energy: N. American Oil Companies See Improved Financial Results in 3rd Quarter11-26

    Residential Heating Oil Prices Lower11-26

    Propane Stocks Fall 2M Barrels11-26

    Gasoline Prices Drop 7 Cents11-26

    Diesel Prices Fall 3 Cents11-26

    Texas: Hopkins County Designated Natural Disaster Area11-26

    Kansas: 4 Counties Declared Natural Disaster Areas11-26

    Alabama: 4 Counties Designated as Primary Disaster Areas11-26

    Texas Pecans: Demand Good but Quality Variable11-26

    Louisiana Pecans: Light Deliveries, Good Buying Interest11-26

    Georgia Pecans: Prices Slightly Higher with Strong Trade11-26

    DTN Grain Midday: Soybeans Slip 5 to 10 Lower11-26

    Farmers Share What They’re Thankful For — DTN11-26

    GMO Crops Have Facts on Their Side, but Debate Goes on — DTN11-26

    Wheat: Make One Last Scouting Trip This Fall — DTN11-26

    Farm Income Down 21%; Expenses Up 5.7% – USDA Forecast11-26

    Livestock: 6 Tips to Fight PEDv This Fall11-25

    Doane Cotton Close: Outside Strength Helps Prices Rebound11-25

    AgFax Cotton Review: New Stink Bug App; India Exports Drop11-25

    Tax Breaks: Waiting for 2014 Equipment Deduction, Biofuel – DTN11-25

    USDA: Weekly National Peanut Prices11-25

    Georgia: 10 Farm Bill Meetings Scheduled for Mid Dec.11-25

    AgFax Rice Review: Iraq Resumes U.S. Purchases; Cambodia Wins Best Rice Award11-25

    Winter Weather Creates More Problems for Railroads — DTN11-25

    Future of Cellulosic Biofuels in U.S. Questioned — DTN11-25

    AgFax Peanut Review: Growers Urged to Plant Earlier; Texoma Sells Drying Facility11-25

    Shurley on Cotton: New Round of Weakness Sets In11-25

    Welch on Wheat: Crop Condition Down Slightly11-24

    Welch on Grain: Snow Keeps 770M Bushels of Corn in Field11-24

    Farmland Partners Buys 7 South Carolina Farms for $28M11-24

    Livestock: Hog and Pork Prices Return to Reality11-24

    Corn: Breaking Down Stalks Takes Thought, Planning — DTN11-24

    DTN Fertilizer Outlook: Winter’s Arrival May Delay Some Buying11-24

    Brazil Soybeans: Dry Conditions Still Cause for Concern11-24

    Flint on Crops: Low Input Farming May be Necessary in 201511-24

    Midwest Corn And Soybean Yields – Our Readers’ Reports – AgFax11-22

    Grain Drying: 6 Questions About Effects Of Sudden Drop In Temps11-21

    Sunbelt Ag Events

     

    About Us

    AgFax.Com covers agricultural trends and production topics, with an emphasis on news about cotton, rice, peanuts, corn, soybeans, wheat and tree crops, including almonds, pecans, walnuts and pistachios.

      

    This site also serves as the on-line presence of electronic crop and pest reports published by AgFax Media LLC (formerly Looking South Communications).

        

    Click here to subscribe to our free reports.

      

    We provide early warnings and confirmations about pests, diseases and other factors that influence yield. Our goal is to quickly provide farmers and crop advisors with information needed to make better and more profitable decisions.

         

    Our free weekly crop and pest advisories include:

    • AgFax Midsouth Cotton, covering cotton production and news in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Missouri.

    • AgFax Southeast Cotton, covering cotton production and news in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.

    • AgFax Southwest Cotton (new for 2013!), covering cotton production and news in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and New Mexico.

    • AgFax West (formerly MiteFax: SJV Cotton), covering California cotton, alfalfa, tomatoes and other non-permanent crops in California's Central Valley.

    • AgFax Rice covering rice production and news in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri and Texas.

    • AgFax Peanuts, covering peanut production in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia.

    • AgFax Southern Grain: covering soybeans, corn, milo and small grains in Southern states.

    • AgFax Almonds, covering almonds, pistachios, walnuts and other tree crops in California's Central Valley.

    • AgCom 101, providing guidance to ag professionals involved in social media.

    Our newsletters are sponsored by the following companies: FMC Corporation Chemtura Dow AgroSciences.

          

    Mission statement:

    Make it as easy as possible for our community of readers to find and/or receive needed information.

              

    Contact Information:

    AgFax Media. LLC

    142 Westlake Drive Brandon, MS 39047

    601-992-9488 Office 601-992-3503 Fax

    Owen Taylor Debra L. Ferguson Laurie Courtney

          

    Circulation Questions?

    Contact Laurie Courtney