Tuesday, January 22, 2013
wheat-tiller-north-carolina-01122012-reatured

Louisiana Wheat: All This Waterlogging And Its Effect on the Crop

AgFax.Com - Your Online Ag News Source


Winter wheat is one of the few crops currently in the ground and subject to the adverse effects of flooding. Reports indicate that many winter wheat fields have been flooded for varying periods in January. Some areas of Louisiana have received in excess of 15-20 inches of rain within a one-week time period. Not surprisingly, there is considerable concern about the impact that flooding or waterlogging will have on the 2013 winter wheat crop.

Crop injury from waterlogging is primarily caused by the lack of oxygen. When soils become saturated, the amount of oxygen available to plant tissues below the surface of the soil (or water level during flooding) decreases as plants and microorganisms use up what is available. The movement of oxygen from the air into water/saturated soil is much slower than in well-aerated soil and much less than needed by the crop and other organisms in the soil.

The depletion of oxygen rate in saturated soil is dependent on a number of factors, but temperature is the most important and predictable factor. The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of oxygen depletion. Under cooler temperatures, the negative effects of flooding take longer to impact plant tissues. Fortunately, the temperatures that have accompanied all of excess rainfall received in January have been relatively cold to mild.




The extent of water damage to a particular field largely depends on the length of time that there was standing water and the size of the area of the field that was affected. It should be easy to tell whether the wheat plants were flooded for too long; they either die or become rotted and stunted, with a chlorotic appearance (light green-yellow discoloration).

A major question arises as to whether or not these chlorotic, stunted plants will be able to recover and produce a reasonable grain yield. While this is a difficult question to address, it is still early in the growing season, so the potential exists for these affected plants to recover.

One thing is certain; if these affected areas don’t receive any nitrogen fertilizer, there is no way they will be able to recover. It might be wise for growers to consider making an application in the range of 20-30 pounds of nitrogen per acre as soon as possible.

If the plants do respond this fertilizer application by greening up and tillering, then chances are good they will develop into plants that are capable of producing some level of grain yield. If the plants don’t respond to this fertilizer application, then no further inputs should be added.

Growers will have to analyze the extent of the damage to their fields, and make decisions about fertilizing the affected areas accordingly. If these affected areas do respond to this initial nitrogen fertilizer application, then an additional application will be needed in about mid-February, after the first node becomes visible.

Total nitrogen applications to these affected areas (and all other fields as well) should range from 90 to 120 pounds per acre.

Another consequence of the recent flooding events is the presence of wheat diseases. Saturated and poorly drained areas favor plant diseases such as root rots. Downy mildew is a fungal disease that is also associated with poorly drained areas of a field.

Plant symptoms produced by downy mildew are variable. Some diseased plants tiller excessively and are severely dwarfed, with many tillers growing only a few inches tall. Some infected plants may produce some upright growth, but they may have twisted heads and malformed leaves.

Plants usually have yellowish lower leaves and these may have a leathery feel. No chemical treatments are available for root rots or downy mildew.

One final issue for the present time deals with wheat vernalization. In 2012 there were issues with partial or lack of vernilization with some wheat varieties. Vernalization is the response to cold temperature that overcomes dormancy and allows the wheat plant to start forming heads.

The best vernalization temperatures are in the 40-50 0F range, not at colder temperatures. Vernalization is a biological process and plants have to be biologically active, not frozen, to occur. Most winter wheat varieties grown in the southeastern US require 3 to 7 weeks of vernalization. If you recall in 2012 weather conditions were relatively warm during certain time periods in the winter months, and some varieties may have only received partial vernalization.

These fields took on a “ragged” appearance after the plants headed out. We have already had enough accumulation of cool temperatures for proper vernalization in 2013, so issues involving vernalization should not be a concern this year.


Tags: , ,


Leave a Reply

Name and Email Address are required fields. Your email will not be published or shared with third parties.

Sunbelt Ag News

    DTN Grain Open: Futures Start Out Lower9-30

    Keith Good: ‘Misinformation’ Muddles Clean Water Act, EPA Chief Says9-30

    Grain TV: Short Covering Ahead of Grain Stocks Report9-29

    AFB Grain-Soybean Close: Prices Climb on Technical Buying9-29

    AFB Cotton Close: Inside Day Finishes Lower9-29

    AFB Rice Close: Futures Lower on Inside Day9-29

    Doane Cotton Close: Harvest Progress Still Sluggish9-29

    DTN Livestock Close: Cattle Complex Soars to All-Time Highs9-29

    Grain Storage, Transportation Worries Mount — DTN9-29

    Soybeans: Value of Protein, Oil Rates More Market Attention — DTN9-29

    DTN Cotton Close: Finishes Inside Day Slightly Lower9-29

    Soybean Harvest Rises by 7 Points, Corn 5 — DTN9-29

    Growing Demand for Pork Likely to be Met — and Quickly9-29

    DTN Grain Close: Markets Start Week Higher9-29

    Peanut Stocks and Processing: Utilization Up 4%, Stocks at 1.4B Pounds9-29

    DTN Livestock Midday: Strong Rally Develops in Cattle Complex9-29

    DTN Grain Midday: Soybean Trade Moves Higher9-29

    Peanuts: New Revenue Policy Implemented by USDA9-29

    DTN Cotton Open: Trades Near Unchanged in December9-29

    DTN Livestock Open: Mixed Trade Expected Early Monday9-29

    Flint on Crops: What is a Good Variety Worth?9-29

    Southern Grain Crops In 2014 – Top 10 Trends, Issues, Setbacks – AgFax9-28

    Farm to Table: Something Old is New Again. – AgFax9-26

    Rice: Mexico To Restore Import Tariffs on Asian Rice9-26

    Rice Crop: Delta Area Harvests Picking Up Steam9-26

    Rice Market: Strong Friday Push Makes for a Positive Week9-26

    Rose on Cotton: Bearish News – We got plenty.9-26

    Cleveland on Cotton: Chinese Moves Send Market into Free Fall9-26

    Sizing Up Sudden Death Syndrome: Management Decisions to Fight Back – DTN9-26

    Nebraska: New Study Addresses Climate Change Challenges – DTN9-26

    GMO Wheat Appears in Montana as USDA Wraps Up Oregon Investigation – DTN9-26

    Welch on Wheat: Harvest Behind Normal, Conditions Decline9-26

    Louisiana: Ag Officials Ask for New Rules for Drones9-26

    Welch on Grain: Corn Condition Improves Slightly9-26

    USDA: Peanut Price Highlights9-26

    Shurley on Cotton: Carefully Consider Selling Options9-26

    AgFax Wildlife Review: S.C. National Park Confronts Wild Hog Problem9-26

    Crop Insurance Details Clearing Up — DTN9-26

    Crop Insurance: ARC-PLC Regulation and Decision Tools9-25

    Taxes: Definition of Insanity, Cheat the IRS on Land Sales – DTN9-25

    Kansas: Revised Edition of Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide Now Available9-25

    U.S. Energy: Weak Demand, Plentiful Supply Drive Drop in Oil Prices9-25

    Gasoline Prices: Average Down 6 Cents9-25

    Propane Stocks: Rise by 1.7M Barrels9-25

    Diesel Prices: Lowest in Over 2 Years9-25

    U.S. Grain Transportation: Inspections Highest Since May9-25

    Growing Cycles Differ Greatly from Iowa to Florida — DTN9-25

    Iowa-Based Company to Build Ethanol Plant in Brazil — DTN9-25

    Big Data Drives Smarter Decisions on Farm — DTN9-25

    Corn Belt Growers Eager to Get Harvest Rolling — DTN9-25

    Minnesota: 18 Counties Declared Natural Disaster Areas9-24

    Tennessee: 8 Counties Designated Natural Disaster Areas9-24

    Indiana: Farm Fatalities Continue Downward Trend9-24

    Mississippi: Check Farm Equipment Before Driving on Public Roads9-24

    Mississippi Hunting: Put Cleanliness First When Processing Deer9-24

    Tax Deductions: Health Insurance on the Farm9-24

    Michigan: Soybean Harvest Field Day, Yale, Oct. 99-24

    Sunbelt Ag Events

     

    About Us

    AgFax.Com covers agricultural trends and production topics, with an emphasis on news about cotton, rice, peanuts, corn, soybeans, wheat and tree crops, including almonds, pecans, walnuts and pistachios.

      

    This site also serves as the on-line presence of electronic crop and pest reports published by AgFax Media LLC (formerly Looking South Communications).

        

    Click here to subscribe to our free reports.

      

    We provide early warnings and confirmations about pests, diseases and other factors that influence yield. Our goal is to quickly provide farmers and crop advisors with information needed to make better and more profitable decisions.

         

    Our free weekly crop and pest advisories include:

    • AgFax Midsouth Cotton, covering cotton production and news in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Missouri.

    • AgFax Southeast Cotton, covering cotton production and news in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.

    • AgFax Southwest Cotton (new for 2013!), covering cotton production and news in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and New Mexico.

    • AgFax West (formerly MiteFax: SJV Cotton), covering California cotton, alfalfa, tomatoes and other non-permanent crops in California's Central Valley.

    • AgFax Rice covering rice production and news in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri and Texas.

    • AgFax Peanuts, covering peanut production in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia.

    • AgFax Southern Grain: covering soybeans, corn, milo and small grains in Southern states.

    • AgFax Almonds, covering almonds, pistachios, walnuts and other tree crops in California's Central Valley.

    • AgCom 101, providing guidance to ag professionals involved in social media.

    Our newsletters are sponsored by the following companies: FMC Corporation Chemtura Dow AgroSciences.

          

    Mission statement:

    Make it as easy as possible for our community of readers to find and/or receive needed information.

              

    Contact Information:

    AgFax Media. LLC

    142 Westlake Drive Brandon, MS 39047

    601-992-9488 Office 601-992-3503 Fax

    Owen Taylor Debra L. Ferguson Laurie Courtney

          

    Circulation Questions?

    Contact Laurie Courtney